Paramedia is a theory for cultural studies of content interfaces.

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Qualitative analysis and quantitative attribution are made possible with a taxonomy for interface elements. Based on literary theory, interface studies and analytics elements, the theory helps researchers to make sense and meaning for interfaces and content.

What interfaces want

Interfaces are not neutral. They are constantly leading us towards something — to watch a video, read a post, listen to a song or buy a product. 

I call paramedia the elements that help us to identify the content we want to consume, and make our decision whether or not to consume it.

The theory of paramedia blends critical discourse analysis, cultural analysis, marketing, service design, UX, UI, analytics and conversion optimization.

Based on the first interface widely available — the book — this conceptual framework includes cultural, interactive and attribution elements to it, making design work and qualitative or quantitative analysis easy, clear and relevant.

EVERY ELEMENT helps the user to move forward. How, exactly? That's the question paramedia studies focuses on.

Image by Halacious

The path to each content piece we consume online is opened by a sequence of touchpoints that tell us to keep going.


These touchpoints are composed by numerous interface elements. Each element influences users' decision of moving forward.

Paramedia is the study of such elements.



Paramedia studies offer Academic tools for qualitative analysis of interfaces, close readings and quantitative analysis and attribution, as well.


They are interesting for scholars, students and researchers in the field of digital culture, contemporary culture, screen culture, marketing, UX, UI, design and digital textual practice researchers.

Design thinkers and doers of all kinds may also benefit from the proposed structure. 


Paramedia: Thresholds of the social text

S Tavares

Jyväskylä studies in humanities

What is an author in social media?

S Tavares

MIT8 Public Media, Private Media: Media in Transition International …

Why Do We Write as We Write

S Tavares


Paratextual Prometheus. Digital Paratexts on YouTube, Vimeo and Prometheus Transmedia Campaign

S Tavares

International Journal of Transmedia Literacy (IJTL) 1, 175-195

Peixe-elétrico# 05: Silviano

AP Pacheco, B Rodrigues, FR Vassoler, R Roye, R Lísias, S Tavares, ...


Writing in social media

S Tavares

Why do We Write as We Write? Paradigms, Power, Poetics, Praxis, 125-132

The Gaze of Magibon: critical discourse analysis on multi-million viewed YouTube videos

ST Filho

2nd Global Conference in Digital Culture 2 (1)

Rinse, Repeat: Paratextual Poetics of Literary Twitter Collage Retweeted

L Piippo - Image and Narrative, 2019 -

Kohti pelisivistystä

M Meriläinen -

“The Man Who Would Be Popular”: An Analysis of Salman Rushdie's Twitter Feed

T Ravy - The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 2017 -

Reframing Salman Rushdie: The Politics of Representation and New Media in Transnational Public Culture

T Ravy - 2018 -

 Understanding the Dynamics of User-Generated Translation on YouTube: A Bourdieusian Perspective.

E Krasnopeyeva - New Voices in Translation Studies, 2018 -

Collage Graphic Art


Workshop: Service Design Performance Indicators for Helsinki University Student Services

The team behind the design and development of Helsinki University student services gather to understand how to define, measure and design solutions for current digital experience problems. With Design & Development Teams. 

Digitalist Group @ Helsinki University, Helsinki, 2019.​

Lecture: Media, Paramedia & Performance Indicators

Master Degree on Contemporary Culture, combining the framework of paramedia, value propositions and the consumer marketing funnel.

University of Jyväskylä, 2019.

Speaker: The Datafied Consumer

Discussions on customer journey mapping with qualitative data, quantitatively. Nordic Morning Executive Breakfast with Emarsys.
Helsinki, 2017.​​

Speaker: Mind the Map, an ebook for mapping customer journeys

How to map the customer journey in a lean, yet data-rich way?

Helsinki Marketing Week

Messukeskus, Markkinoinnin viikko, 2016.

Speaker: What Yoko Ono Had For Breakfast: Authorship in Twitter

Media In Transition 8: Massachusetts Institute of Technology:
Cambridge, MA, 2013.

Speaker: Paratextual Prometheus: Transmedia, author, paratexts

Transmedia Literacy Conference
Program in Digital Culture (IN3 — Universitat Oberta de Catalunya): Barcelona, 2013.​

Course: Media practices

Interactions Master of Arts program
University of Jyväskylä, 2012.

Lecture: Power & Paramedia

Master Degree on Interactions

Aalto University, 2011.

Lecture: Power & Paramedia

Digital Culture Summer School

Nordic Digital Culture Network, 2011.



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©2020 by Lutav | Sérgio Tavares, ph.D.